The Menger Sponge -iteration 5- with a tridimensional non linear transformation [L'éponge de Menger -itération 5- avec une transformation non linéaire tridimensionnelle].

The "inverse" tridimensional transformation uses the three pseudo-projections {PX(x,y),PY(x,y),PZ(x,y)} of the surfaces obtained by the interpolation between the Bonan-Jeener's triple Klein bottle and a sphere in the reverse order. These pseudo-projections define the transformation of the {X,Y,Z} tridimensional space.

See the result of the "direct" transformation:

See the Menger sponge -iteration 5-:

The interpolation between the Bonan-Jeener's triple Klein bottle and a sphere (the so-called direct transformation) is defined as:

[Plus d'informations à propos de la pseudo-projection des surfaces -en français/in french-]
[More information about the surface pseudo-projection -in english/en anglais-]

[Plus d'informations à propos de la génération d'entrelacs -en français/in french-]
[More information about the generation of intertwinings -in english/en anglais-]

Definition of the "standard" Menger sponge (related to the Cantor triadic set): A cube is cut into 3x3x3=27 identical smaller cubes. Then the 7 central subcubes (6 for each face and 1 at the center of the cube) are removed. At last this process is iterated recursively with the 27-7=20 remaining subcubes. The fractal dimension of the Menger sponge is equal to:
```                     log(20)
--------- = 2.726833027860842...
log(3)
```
The "standard" Menger sponge can be defined by means of subdivision rules. Here is the way how each of the 27 cubes of the "standard" Menger sponge at a given level is subdivided:
```
"standard"  Menger sponge
_____________________
/                     \

TTT       TFT       TTT
TFT       FFF       TFT
TTT       TFT       TTT

\_/

Sierpinski carpet
```
or again:
```                    TTT TFT TTT  TFT FFF TFT  TTT TFT TTT
```
where 'T' ('True') and 'F' ('False') means respectively "subdivide" and "do not subdivide". The rules are repeated at each level, but they can be changed periodically and for example:
```
TTT TFT TTT  TFT FFF TFT  TTT TFT TTT   FFF FTF FFF  FTF TTT FTF  FFF FTF FFF

\___________________________________/   \___________________________________/

"standard"  Menger sponge                      complement
```
alternates the "standard" Menger sponge and its complement. Obviously many other rules do exist as shown below...

Beside 'F' and 'T' some other possibilities exist: 'R' that means "subdivide" or "do not subdivide" Randomly with a given threshold between 0 and 1 (0.5 being the default value) and 'S' that means "Stop subdividing". Obviously 'F', 'T', 'R' and 'S' can be mixed at will...

Moreover an amazing cross-section can be made using the plane:
```                    2X - 2Y + 2Z - 1 = 0
```
the origin of the coordinates being at the center of the main cube and the axis being parallel to its sides.

This process can be generalized in many different ways and for example:
```                      3     3     3
2X  - 2Y  + 2Z  - 1 = 0
```
(the curved one) or again:
```                          1  2         1  2         1  2    2
(X - ---)  + (Y - ---)  + (Z - ---)  = R
2            2            2
```
(the spherical one).

The "standard" Menger sponge:

See some related pictures (possibly including this one):

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Some non linear transformations of the "standard" Menger sponge:

See some related pictures (possibly including this one):

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The complement of the "standard" Menger sponge:

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Some extended Menger sponges: Two ways of extending the "standard" Menger sponge. On the one hand one can change the used volume (from a cube to a sphere for example). On the other hand one can change the rules of subdividing each cube as well as their numbers...

See some related pictures (possibly including this one):

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The fractal "standard" Menger sponge:

See some related pictures (possibly including this one):

(CMAP28 WWW site: this page was created on 03/29/2015 and last updated on 12/06/2023 12:27:29 -CET-)

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